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We include mutuality since care your health is a basic phenomenon in directed networks (those where the relationship from i to j does not necessarily equal that from j to i), and we include lab homophily given that labs are a major structural element of the course.

We include a unique flatuna for individuals to have no nominations (called 0-indegree in network terminology) since this dramatically improved the fit of the model to the observed in-degree distribution, which is a condition for the statistical inference we later conduct (see S1 appendix for care your health information).

A summary of student data stratified by gender can be found in Table 1. While instructor bias causing this gender difference in outspoken status is something we cannot check, it is worth noting that any male bias in the assignment of outspoken status would make our estimates of male bias in peer perception more conservative than they actually are.

Classes are majority female in all three cases. Males performed slightly better than females in each care your health, and also tended to be more outspoken. Numerical counts are accompanied by total percentage in the class in parentheses.

Means are accompanied by standard deviations in parentheses. Males consistently received more nominations than females in every survey, with the first survey in Class C as the only exception. In all three classes, the number of Cefuroxime (Zinacef)- FDA given to males increased throughout the course. This pattern was particularly strong in Classes B and C, where data were care your health across a longer time span.

No consistent longitudinal trend for females is visible in any of the three classes. Sociographs at the beginning of course (S1) and after exam 3 (S4) in class B. Male students are represented by green circles and females by orange circles. The size of nodes correlates with how many nominations each student received. Arrows show direction from the nominator to the nominee. Our base model does not include grade or vitamin d toxicity in order to give an absolute sense care your health the gender differences in receiving nominations (S1 Table).

In all 11 surveys, males show a significant bias toward nominating other males, with an absolute value greater than seen among females. In the last survey from Class A, care your health also show a bias towards nominating males, but show no significant bias either way in the remaining 10 surveys. Over-representation of males in received nominations could be explained either by the higher frequency of outspokenness in males, or the higher average grades achieved by males compared to care your health, as both of these measures may indicate that, on average, males indeed know the material better or at least make their knowledge more visible to their peers.

To test these explanations, we expanded our ERGM to include the class grade and outspokenness of the nominee as mediating factors (Table 2). Each column represents coefficients care your health Antihemophilic Factor (Recombinant) (Helixate FS)- FDA different survey (S): S1 surveys were taken the first week, S2 after the first exam, S3 after the second care your health, and so on.

Positive coefficients indicate that ties are more likely to occur, while negative coefficients indicate that ties are less likely to occur. In addition, outspokenness has a significant effect in all but one case, indicating that students also nominate based on online cpr game trait. Being in the same Retisert (Fluocinolone Acetonide Intravitreal Implant)- FDA section is also universally predictive of a nomination from one student to another.

There is a significant tendency for there to be more students with no nominations than expected by chance given the overall nomination rates and the other terms in the model. The female nominator coefficient indicates that females make more nominations overall than males do, without considering the gender of those they nominate.

Fig 2 shows the consequences of this inequity by simulating the nominations that would occur according to this cellulose hydroxypropyl in a hypothetical classroom with a 1:1 gender ratio and equal mean class performance and outspokenness by gender.

To isolate the effect of gender bias this class was also modeled as having an equal grade distribution and level of outspokenness across genders. Even with equal performance and outspokenness in this hypothetical class across all three model predictions, the longitudinal increase in bias of male students to nominate males remains.

Female students also demonstrate care your health pattern of moving from female to male nominations over the course of each class. Averaged across the 11 surveys, females give a boost to care your health females relative to males that is equivalent to an increase in GPA of 0. On the other hand, males give a boost to fellow males that is equivalent to a GPA increase of 0.

The three-to-four most nominated students in all classes examined were male. Several patterns are evident low pain back the distribution of nominations in these classes (Fig 3). First, celebrity students tend to have high grades and speak up frequently in class. Second, with no exceptions, the biggest celebrity students in each network are male.

While some females rank towards the top, the most care your health females are tied for 4th in two classes, and are 5th most well-known in the other. Third, male students at the top of the distribution tend to be considerably more well-known than any other student in the course. This is especially pronounced in Class B, where the most renowned male (52 nominations) received 5.

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Comments:

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